1 Jean-Paul Sartre, Search for a Method, Hazel E Barnes, trans, Vintage Books, Random House, New York, 1988, p 88
2 Ibid, p 90
3 My argument is more fully developed in Richard Appignanesi, ‘The future of art in
postcultural democracy’, Futures, vol 39, no 10, December 2007, pp 1234–1240
4 Lucy Lippard, ‘Interview with Ursula Meyer’ and ‘Postface’, in Art in Theory
1900–1990, Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, eds, Blackwell, Oxford, 1992,
pp 893–896, p 895
5 Gerald Raunig, European Cultural Policies, 2015, M Lind and R Minichbauer, eds,
Iapsis, Stockholm, 2005, p 17, quoted in Richard Appignanesi, op cit, p 1235
6 Gerald Raunig, ‘Instituent Practices: Fleeing, Instituting, Transforming’, in Art and Contemporary Critical Practice: Reinventing Institutional Critique, Gerald Raunig
and Gene Ray, eds, MayflyBooks, London, 2009, p 3
7 Stuart Comer, ‘Art Must Hang: An Interview with Andrea Fisher’, in Mike Sperlinger,
ed, Afterthought: New Writing on Conceptual Art, Rachmaninoff’s, London, 2005,
p 32 et passim
8 Ibid, p 41
9 Andrea Fraser, ‘From the Critique of Institutions to an Institution of Critique’, Artforum, vol 44, no 1, pp 278–283, p 282, quoted by Raunig, ‘Instituent Practices’, op cit, p 6
10 Rasheed Araeen, ‘What is Art Education?’, commissioned by Greater London Council, 1985, p 11 Sartre, op cit, p 151
13 Ibid, p 113
1 Rasheed Araeen, ‘Preliminary Notes for the Understanding of Historical Significance of Geometry in Islamic Thought, and its Suppressed Role in the Genealogy of World History’, Third Text Asia 2, spring 2009, Black Umbrella/Fomma, London and Karachi, pp 3–14
2 Olu Oguibe, Uzo Egonu: An African Artist in the West, Kala Press, London, 1995
3 Rasheed Araeen, ‘Conversation with Aubrey Williams’, Third Text 2, Kala Press,
4 Petrine Archer-Straw, Negrophilia: Avant-Garde Paris and Black Culture in the 1920s,
Thames and Hudson, London, 2000
5 Hans Ulrich Obrist, ‘An Interview with Ernest Mancoba’, Third Text 104, vol 24, no 3, May 2010, p 373
6 Ibid, p 376
7 Ibid, p 376
8 See ‘Beyond Negritude: Senghor’s Vision for Africa’, special issue, Third Text 103,
vol 24, no 2, March 2010
9 Obrist, op cit, p 378
10 CoBrA is an abbreviation of Copenhagen, Brussels and Amsterdam. Rasheed Araeen,
‘Modernity, Modernism and Africa’s Authentic Voice’, Third Text 103, op cit
11 Laura M Smalligan, ‘The Erasure of Ernest Mancoba: Africa and Europe at the
Crossroads’, Third Text 103, op cit
12 Obrist, op cit, p 380
13 Ibid, p 383
14 Ibid, p 383
15 Ibid, p 384
16 Stella Santacatterina, ‘Denis Bowen: The Universality of Abstraction’, in ‘A Very
Special British Issue’, Third Text 91, vol 22, no 2, March 2008, pp 157–162
17 Guy Brett, Exploding Galaxies: The Art of David Medalla, Kala Press, London,
1995, p 50
18 Rasheed Araeen, The Other Story: Afro-Asian Artists in Post-War Britain,
Hayward Gallery, South Bank Centre, London, 1989
19 Rasheed Araeen, ‘Art of Benevolent Racism’, Third Text 51, summer 2000. See also
Rasheed Araeen, ‘A Very Special British Issue: Modernity, Art History and the Crisis
of Art Today’, in op cit, pp 125–144
20 Chris Smith, ‘Whose Heritage?’ The Museums Association Conference,
1–3 November 1999
23 Araeen, The Other Story, op cit
25 Araeen, The Other Story, op cit
27 Margaret Thatcher, quoted in the editorial of Black Phoenix 2, London, 1978, p 3
Ethnic Minorities, Multiculturalism and Celebration of the Postcolonial Other
1 In 2005 Arts Council England launched Respond: A Practical Resource for Developing a Race Equality Plan.
2 Rosetta Brooks, ‘An Art of Refusal’, in Clive Phillpot and Andrea Tarsia, eds, Live In Your Head: Concept And Experiment In Britain, 1965–75, Whitechapel Art Gallery,
3 See Guy Brett, Exploding Galaxies: The Art of David Medalla, Kala Press, London, 1995.
4 Naseem Khan, The Arts Britain Ignores: The Arts of Ethnic Minorities in Britain, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and Community Relations Commission, London, 1976
5 Arts Council of Great Britain, press release, in Rasheed Araeen, Making Myself Visible, Kala Press, London, 1984, p 161
6 Rasheed Araeen, ‘The Art Britain Really Ignores’, in Making Myself Visible, op cit, pp 100–105
7 Rasheed Araeen, ‘Preliminary Notes for a Black Manifesto’, in Making Myself Visible, op cit, pp 7–97
8 Rasheed Araeen, ‘Art for Uhuru: Some Reflections on the Recent Emergence of Black Consciousness in Art’, in Making Myself Visible, op cit, pp 149–151
9 Osman Jamal, ‘E B Havell: The Art and Politics of Indianness’, Third Text 39, summer 1997
11 Anish Kapoor, letter to the author, 1983
12 There are various references to ‘The Other Story’ exhibition on the internet. For instance,
see Philip Lawrence-Hoyte, ‘The Other Story (1989)’, at http://www.q-artlondon.com articles/2-articles/37-the-other-story-1989; and Jean Fisher, ‘The Other Story and the Past
Imperfect’, at http://www.tate.org.uk/research/tateresearch/tatepapers/09autumn/fishershtm
Cultural Diversity and Institutional Policy
1 Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Articles 13 and 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; see http://www.un.org overview/rights.html and http://www.un.org/millennium/law/lv-3.htm
2 Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General, UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, 2001
3 The following are among the most significant of these initiatives: Naseem Khan, The Arts Britain Ignores: The Arts of Ethnic Minorities in Britain, 1976, funded by the Arts Council, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and the Community Relations Commission (later the Commission for Racial Equality), which appeared at the time of an overt breakdown in ‘race relations’; the Swann Report, Education for All: The Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, HMSO, 1985, prompted by concern at the underachievement of African Caribbean children, and The Arts and Ethnic Minorities: Action Plan, 1986, both following the violent civil uprisings of the early 1980s; the Cultural Diversity Unit of the Arts Council, established in the early 1990s; Framework for Change: Moves Towards a New Cultural Diversity Action Plan (consultation document), Arts Council England, London, 2001, which followed the Macpherson Report, The Stephen Inquiry: by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, The Stationary Office, 1999, on institutional racism and the new anti-racist legislation of the Race Relations (Amendments) Act, 2000; decibel: raising the voice of culturally diverse arts in Britain, 2003, Arts Council England, and the Inspire Fellowship Programme, Arts Council England, both concerned with the under-representation of ‘ethnic minorities’ in arts administration; and most recently, Delivering Shared Heritage: The Mayor’s Commission on African and Asian Heritage, Greater London Authority, London, 2005, supported by ALM London (Archives, Libraries, Museums), the Victoria and Albert Museum and Heritage Lottery Fund, prepared following alarm at the rise in Islamic fundamentalism after 9/11 and the invasion of Iraq, 2003.
4 Richard Hylton, The Nature of the Beast: Cultural Diversity and the Visual Arts Sector: A Study of Policies, Initiatives and Attitudes 1976–2006, ICIA (Institute of Contemporary Interdisciplinary Arts), Bath, 2007
5 Ibid, p 23
6 That in order to acquire agency the generation of Black and Asian artists who emerged during the early 1980s survived initially by pluralising their roles – curating, archiving, initiating magazines, critical writing, etc – testifies to the lack of opportunities available to them.
7 ‘Afro Modern’ at Tate Liverpool, 2010, continues this pattern of ‘black-themed’ exhibitions, when we badly need modernist exhibitions in which historical ‘minority’ artists are presented with equality and respect alongside white artists.
8 Among the formative policies of the ACE-funded Institute of New International Visual Arts (INIVA) in 1992 was that it should not have a dedicated gallery as this would allow established art institutions to continue their self-replicating policies and hegemony. INIVA’s aim was to build alliances with them to produce co-curated exhibitions, an aspiration which mostly failed to materialise. Hylton sees the new INIVA building and gallery as a capitulation to segregation.
9 See note 1, Delivering Shared Heritage, Mayor’s Commission on African and Asian Heritage, Greater London Authority, London, 2005
10 While the museums’ Black History Month may employ more black artist participants and attract more black audiences for one month of the year, there is silence on the level of engagement of white audiences. As Delivering Shared Heritage itself points out, there needs to be structural reform coordinated across the entire arts, education and heritage sectors to embed diversity in national consciousness.
11 Jonathan Vickery, The Emergence of Culture-led Regeneration: A Policy Concept and Its Discontents, Research Paper No 9, Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, University of Warwick, 2007, p 58
12 Ibid, p 70, my italics
13 Hylton, op cit, pp 127–130
14 Vickery, op cit, p 79
Diversity after Diversity
1 Amartya Sen, Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny, Penguin, London, 2007, pp 60–61
2 Roshi Naidoo, ‘Fear of difference/fear of sameness: the road to conviviality’, first published in Soundings 33, and reprinted in Sally Davidson and Jonathan Rutherford, eds, Race, Identity and Belonging: A Soundings Collection, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 2008, pp 72–81
3 See Heritage, Legacy and Leadership: Ideas and Interventions, Cultural Leadership Programme and the Mayor’s Commission on African and Asian Heritage, London, 2008, p 28.
4 Roshi Naidoo, ‘Back to the Future: Culture and Political Change’, in Soundings 43,winter 2009, pp 65–76
5 Sonya Dyer, ‘Boxed In: How Cultural Diversity Policies Constrict Black Artists’, report by the Manifesto Club Artistic Autonomy Hub with A-N, The Artist’s Information Company, May 2007; see http://www.manifestoclub.com/files/BOXEDIN.pdf
6 Ibid, pp 12–13
7 See Jocelyn Dodd et al, Buried in the Footnotes: The Representation of Disabled People
in Museum and Gallery Collections, Research Centre for Museums and Galleries, Leicester, 2004.
8 Roshi Naidoo, ‘No More Waiting – We Are The Leaders: Assessing the Heritage, Legacy
and Leadership Seminars’, in Embedding Shared Heritage: The Heritage Diversity Task Force Report, Mayor’s Commission on African and Asian Heritage, London, 2009, p 66
9 Ibid, p 66–67
Cultural Inequality, Multicultural Nationalism and Global Diversity Tate Encounters: Britishness and Visual Culture
1 ‘Black British Art: The Revolt of the Artist’, Tate Britain panel discussion, 17 May 2006; http://www.tate.org.uk/onlineevents/webcasts/stuart_hall/default.jsp
2 Press release for ‘Progress Reports: Art in an Era of Diversity’, exhibition held at INIVA, London, 28 January – 13 March 2010
3 For the full programme of this conference see http://www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/66393_file.pdf
4 For further information about Tate Encounters see the Tate website at http://www.tate.org.uk, and the project’s archive website at http://www.tate.org.uk/research/tateresearch/majorprojects/tate-encounters/, and http://process.tateencounters.org/
5 See section 6.34 of ‘The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny’, The Stationery Office, London, 1999; http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm42/4262/4262.htm
6 See section 2.12, Bhikhu Parekh, The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: The Parekh Report, Profile Books, London, 2001; see also http://www.runnymedetrust.org/projects-and- publications/publications/29/32.html
7 Ibid, section 3.21
8 See http://www.nationalmuseums.org.uk/resources/nmdc-reports-and-publications/diversity/
9 Munira Mirza, ed, Culture Vultures: Is UK Arts Policy Damaging the Arts?, Policy Exchange, London, 2006
10 Richard Hylton, The Nature of the Beast: Cultural Diversity and the Visual Arts Sector: A Study of Policies, Initiatives and Attitudes 1976–2006, ICIA (Institute of Contemporary Interdisciplinary Arts), Bath, 2007, p 131
11 The differences generated between the two museums revolve around the distinction
between National and International Art. To be cast as a British Artist as well as a Black or minority ethnic subject is therefore to fall within the British politics of multiculturalism and its diversity strategies. It is further the case that artists who collaborated with Tate on educational programmes related to the historical collection were often recruited in order to put the other side of the colonial view contained in the collection.
12 This is a complex point that needs more space to expand upon than is permitted here. Suffice it to say that the cultural space referred to is that of digital culture and the expanded visual field, which has established a new default of distributed networks of meaning, which levels subjectivity. In this the cultural worker is a knowledge holder, whose practices of knowledge are contained by the analogical technologies of the museum.
13 Over the course of the Tate Encounters research, the fieldwork period, which involved student participants with a migrational family background in workshops and media productions, was largely understood as a diversity project of Tate Learning, which was a strongly marked department, tasked by the institution with delivering cultural diversity.
14 The results of all of these deliberations are available as audio files on the Tate Encounters archival website: http://www.tateencounters.org/
15 See http://process.tateencounters.org/?cat=6. This discussion was co-chaired by Mike Phillips and Andrew Dewdney.
16 This is a further highly condensed point requiring elaboration beyond the scope of this paper. It is part of the argument about the new conditions of digital culture, in which culture is globally distributed and in which the older hierarchies of knowledge and
experience are challenged.
Art (School) Education and Art History
1 As in the popular anthology edited by Kymberly Pinder, where race and ethnicity would be used interchangeably (‘“race” here will also refer to “ethnicity” in most instances’, she writes). Kymberly N Pinder, ed, Race-ing Art History: Critical Readings in Race and Art History, Routledge, London, 2002, p 1
2 As James Elkins has described this development: ‘Senses of nationalism or ethnicity have been the sometimes explicit impetus behind art historical research from its origins in Vasari and Winckelmann. The current interest in transnationality, multiculturalism and postcolonial theory has not altered that basic impetus but only obscured it by making it appear that art historians are now free to consider themes that embrace various cultures or all cultures in general.’ James Elkins, ed, Is Art History Global?, Routledge, Oxford and New York, 2007, p 9. That these older preoccupations have characterised the very foundations of art history and the art idea in post-Enlightenment Europe, and so persist as the ground on which we circulate, goes some distance to explain their abiding presence. (On which see Donald Preziosi, ‘The Coy Science’, in Rethinking Art History: Meditations on a Coy Science, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1989, Chapter 4 , pp 80–121; and ‘The Art of Art History,’ in D Preziosi, ed, The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, pp 507–525. What we have yet to explain more fully is the current style of their articulation as contingent upon art history’s sister disciplines and adjacent institutions – including art practice – and the wider field, to museums, mediascapes and the art marketplace.
3 A firm example of this was the key strand on ‘Connecting or Competing Equalities?’ at the Victoria and Albert Museum and University of Leicester conference, 24–26 March 2010, ‘From the Margins to the Core? An international conference exploring the shifting roles and increasing significance of diversity and equality in contemporary museum and heritage policy and practice.’ I gave a keynote address on the subject of ‘Diversity and Cultural Policy’, alongside Professor Andrew Dewdney of the Arts and Humanities Research Council-supported project, ‘Tate Encounters: Britishness and Visual Culture’, fully documented at: http://process.tateencounters.org/
4 Quality Assurance Agency Subject Benchmarking Statement for Art and Design/History of Art, Architecture and Design; http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/benchmark statements/ADHA08.asp. First drafted in 2002, this statement was redrafted in 2008 with my assistance as a member of the review group. The intention is for the Statement to remain in place for at least another ten years. It forms the basis for assessment of excellence in teaching and learning currently taking place in art and design.
5 Paul Gilroy, After Empire: Melancholia or Convivial Culture?, Routledge, London, 2004
6 GLAADH was based at Middlesex University, the University of Sussex and The Open University, and ran from 2000 to 2003. Full details of the project, including reports from its ten sub-projects, and newsletters charting their progress, can be found at http://www.glaadh.ac.uk.
7 See, in particular, section 3.3 of ‘Report on the Outcomes of RAE 2001: History of Art, Architecture and Design’, Research Assessment Exercise 2001, http://www.rae.ac.uk/2001 overview/docs/UoA60.pdf
8 Olu Oguibe, The Culture Game, University of Minnesota Press, London and Minneapolis, 2004, pp xiv–xv. See also Anthony Downey, ‘Critical Imperatives: Notes on Contemporary Art Criticism and African Cultural Production’, Wasafiri, vol 21, no 1, March 2006,
9 Sean Cubitt, ‘In the Beginning: Third Text and the Politics of Art’, in Rasheed Araeen, Sean Cubitt and Ziauddin Sardar, eds, The Third Text Reader on Art, Culture and Theory, Continuum, London, 2002, p 1
10 Paul Gilroy, foreword to Heike Raphael-Hernandez, ed, Blackening Europe: The African American Presence, Routledge, London, 2004, p xix
11 To quote Sonya Dyer in full: ‘Today, the institutionalisation of diversity policies means that art is being sidelined, and in many cases black artists are first and foremost regarded as black. This is clearly shown by the unhealthy pressure on artists and curators from non-white backgrounds to privilege their racial background above all else in relation to their practice. Black artists and curators are often expected to produce projects that are geared towards attracting a black and minority ethnic audience. One young British Asian curator I spoke to about this said that he had never felt “othered” until he began working in public galleries. It goes without saying that white artists and curators do not generally feel the same kind of pressure to appeal specifically to white audiences.’ Sonya Dyer, ‘Boxed In: How Cultural Diversity Policies Constrict Black Artists’, report by the Manifesto Club Artistic Autonomy Hub with a-n, the artists’ information company, May 2007; see www.manifestoclub.com/aa-diversity, p 11. See also: Sonya Dyer, Fiona McAuslan and Tamara Gausi, ‘Why are the Arts so White?’, Time Out, 17–23 October 2007, pp 19–30.
12 Rasheed Araeen, ‘A New Beginning: Beyond Postcolonial Cultural Theory and Identity Politics’, Third Text 50, spring 2000, p 11
13 Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2000, p 194
14 Paul Wood, ‘Between God and the Saucepan: A Study of English Art Education from the 18th Century to the Present Day’, in Chris Stephens, ed, The History of British Art: 1870 – Now, Tate Publications, London, 2008; D Rushton and P Wood, The Politics of Art Education, A School Book, The Studio Trust, London, 1979
15 Grayson Perry, ‘Positive Discrimination Patronises Black Artists’, The Times, 30 May 2007, p 16
16 Martha Rosler, ‘Money, Power, Contemporary Art’, Art Bulletin, vol 79, no 1, 1997, pp 20–24, quoted in Julian Stallabrass, Art Incorporated: The Story of Contemporary Art, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004, p 21. The first chapter of Stallabrass’ study explores in further depth correlations betweens neoliberal agendas such as those in the arts and those of the wider political economy.
17 I pressed this point in February 2010 when speaking alongside the writer and broadcaster Bonnie Greer and artist Gayle Chong Kwan at a Late at Tate event that complemented the major mid-career exhibition at Tate Britain of works by Chris Ofili. I have also suggested that the Caribbean context ought to be investigated more deeply for addressing recent works by the artist Peter Doig, who also resides in Trinidad: Leon Wainwright, ‘Peter Doig, Place and Art History’, Widening Horizons: From the Camden Town Group to Peter Doig, Education Open Evening, Tate Britain, 29 February 2008 (unpublished presentation). A fuller account of these artists’ Trinidad location is given in my exhibition catalogue essay: Leon Wainwright, ‘Apples and Grapes from Foreign’, in Andy Jacob, ed, A Suitable Distance: Rex Dixon, Peter Doig, Kofi Kayiga, Chris Ofili and Roberta Stoddard, Soft Box Studios, Port of Spain, 2006.
18 As Eleonora Belfiore and Oliver Bennett write: ‘...the traditional impact study may, after all, not be a suitable tool for the exploration of the ways in which the arts affect people. While this might be bad news for cultural consultancies and arts administrators looking for appealing advocacy arguments, it might have the effect of opening up research into the impact of the arts in unexpected and rewarding directions.’ ‘Researching the social impact of the arts: literature, fiction and the novel’, International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol 15, no 1, February 2009, pp 17–33, p 30. This is drawn from their larger study, commissioned by the Arts and Humanities Research Council and Arts Council England, E Belfiore and O Bennett, The Social Impact of the Arts: An Intellectual History, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2008.
19 Araeen, Cubitt and Sardar, eds, op cit, p 3
20 Slavoj Zizek, ‘Multiculturalism, or, the Cultural Logic of Multinational Capitalism’, New Left Review, no 225, September/October 1997, pp 28–51
Breaking the Code: New Approaches to Diversity and Equality in the Arts
1 Sir Brian McMaster, Supporting Excellence in the Arts: From Measurement to Judgement, Department of Culture, Media and Sport, London, January 2008, p 11
2 Donald Kuspit, An Interview with Louise Bourgeois, Vintage Books, London, 1988
3 Richard Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life, Basic Books, New York, 2002
4 Max Nathan, ‘The Wrong Stuff: Creative Class Theory, Diversity and City Performance’, in The Centre for Cities, discussion paper no 1, September 2005, p 1; www.ippr.org/index
6 Jamie Peck, ‘Struggling with the Creative Class’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Journal Compilation, vol 29, 2005, p 741
7 Lakhbir Bhandal, interview with the author, 3 March 2010
8 Barbara Gunnell and Martin Bright, eds, ‘A New Deal of the Mind Report’, in Creative Survival in Hard Times, Arts Council England, March 2010, p 23; http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/creative-survival-hard-times/
9 Ibid, p 22
10 Bhandal, op cit
12 Hasan Bakhshi, Alan Freeman and Graham Hitchen, Measuring Intrinsic Value: How to Stop Worrying and Love Economics; http://www.missionmodelsmoney.org.uk/papers
13 Mehrdad Seyf, interview with the author, 20 February 2010
15 Colin Hambrook, interview with the author, 10 March 2010
16 In Nancy Hynes, ‘Yinka Shonibare: Re-dressing History’, and John Picton, ‘Yinka Shonibare: Undressing Ethnicity’, African Arts, vol 34, no 3, autumn 2001, pp 60–73, pp 93–95
17 Terry Rowden, interviewed by Sins Invalid, 12 February 2010, http://sinsinvalid.org/blog
18 From Dorothy Miles, Bright Memory, quoted at http://www.dorothymilescc.org/level2
19 Historical note: The black theatre sector in London, desiring creative autonomy and permanence, had lobbied for its own flagship theatre for decades, with collective hopes raised and dashed many times over. The sense of frustration was expressed by actor Hugh Quarshie who was quoted as saying, ‘Are we having the agenda set for us by established British Theatre tradition? We measure ourselves by what has gone before. But do I care whether the three sisters get to Moscow?’ In July 2005 the Arts Council withdrew support for Talawa Theatre Company’s nine million pound project to revamp the Westminster Theatre in central London. A protest meeting was organised and held at the Africa Centre, Covent Garden. In response ACE ring-fenced the remaining capital funds, an inquiry by Baroness Lola Young was commissioned and carried out and a report titled ‘Whose Theatre?’ followed.
20 http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/whose-theatre-report-on-the-sustained theatre-consultation/. One of those consulted for the report said: ‘We do not just need to record our past but revisit it, to show its relevance to our current situation.’
21 Paul Gilroy, ‘Britishness, Multiculturalism and Culture – Where Next?’, Arts Council Diversity seminar, Tate Modern, Starr Auditorium, 3 May 2006
22 http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/51932/platforms/black-british-theatre-archive-at-the-nt html
23 Kwame Kwei-Armah, interview with the author, 20 March 2010
24 Flesh to a Tiger (1958) starred Cleo Laine and was directed by Tony Richardson, fresh from directing the Royal Court première of Look back In Anger.
25 You in Your Small Corner, about a mixed-race, cross-class relationship, transferred to the West End and was then adapted for Granada TV as a Play of the Week. Talawa Theatre founder Yvonne Brewster recalls ‘he had this incredible play, You in Your Small Corner... Barry was doing what no white playwright was achieving at the time’. http://www.jamaicgleaner.com/gleaner/20090315/ent/ent1.html
26 At the time David Hemmings was on the brink of Hollywood stardom.
27 Cited in video interview with Barry Reckord, 22 April 1997, Blackgrounds series, Talawa Theatre/Theatre Museum production, Talawa Archive, ref TTC/7/3/5
28 Michael Billington, The Guardian, Wednesday 25 January 2006
29 David Edgar, ‘On Racism and Modern Theatre’, speech, 20 March 2007;
30 Ché Walker, see especially Been So Long (a soul/funk musical), Royal Court 1998, Young Vic 2009, and The Frontline, (a play based on the life outside Camden tube station), Shakespeare’s Globe, 2009
31 Dr Alicia Foster, ‘Address to Arts Council 4th Diversity Seminar on Gender Equality’,
14 May 2009
32 Linda Nochlin, ‘Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?’, ARTnews,January 1971, accessed at http://www.mariabuszek.com/kcai/PoMoSeminar/Readings
36 Linda Nochlin, interviewed by Martina Pachmanová, ‘Art History and Historiography: Writing History “Otherly”’, in Mobile Fidelities: Conversations on Feminism, History and Visuality, n.paradoxa, online issue 19, May 2006, p 15
37 Janet Wolff, ‘Society and the Public Sphere: Strategies of Correction and Interrogation’, Pachmanová, ‘Mobile Fidelities’, op cit, p 92
38 Dr Alicia Foster, op cit
39 Rasheed Araeen, Art History As A Common Heritage, proposal submitted to the Arts Council on behalf of Black Umbrella; August 2000; see http://www.thirdtext.com/wp- content/uploads/2009/03/arthistoryasacommonheritage.pdf
Conclusion: What is to be Done?
1 Thierry de Duve, ‘An Ethics: Putting Aesthetic Transmission in its Proper Place in the Art World’, in Art School (Propositions for the 21st Century), Steven Henry Madoff, ed, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009, p 16
2 Ibid, p 22
3 Florence Derieux, introduction to Florence Derieux, ed, Harald Szeeman: Individual Methodology, JRP Ringier, Zurich, 2008, p 8
4 Duve, op cit, p 17
5 Louise Jury and Felix Allen, ‘Art attack at Tate party over gallery’s links to BP’, in The Evening Standard, Tuesday 29 June 2010, p 5. See also Emine Saner and Homa Khaleeli, ‘Crude awakening’, The Guardian, 1 July 2010, pp 19–22. Platform, a London-based artist-activist organisation, wrote the leaflets which were distributed to the Tate party guests by the Good Crude Britannia alliance. The molasses prank was allegedly carried out by Liberate Tate, an offshoot of the Laboratory of Insurrectionary Imagination. Platform is described as an interdisciplinary organisation that addresses socially engaged arts practice, issues of ecology and social responsibility and delivery of an education programme. Arts Council funding is to support core costs. It has received £16,465 in 2008/2009, £54,145 in 2009/2010, and £59,700 due in 2010/2011. Laboratory is not a regularly funded organisation but has received Grants for the Arts from the Arts Council.
6 Sir Nicholas Serota, ‘Don’t let a golden age turn into cultural recession’, London Evening Standard, Thursday 15 July 2010, p 15
7 Ann Lauterbach, ‘The Thing Seen: Reimagining Arts Education for Now’ in Art School, op cit, p 97
8 Jeffrey T Schnapp and Michael Shanks, ‘Artreality: Rethinking Craft in a Knowledge Economy’ in Art School, op cit, p 147
9 Antonio Negri, The Porcelain Workshop: For a New Grammar of Politics, Noura Wedell, trans, Semiotext(e), Los Angeles, 2007, p 25
10 Third Text has published two special issues of particular relevance to this sphere of contemporary art: Whither Tactical Media?, guest editors Gene Ray and Gregory Sholette, Third Text 94, September 2008 and Media Arts: Practice, Institutions and Histories, guest editors José-Carlos Mariátegui, Sean Cubitt and Gunalan Nadarajan, No 98, May 2009.
11 Other models are discussed in the Third Text special issue, Art, Praxis and the Community to Come, guest editor John Roberts, Third Text 99, July 2009.
12 Peter Osborne, ‘What is to be Done? (Education)’, Radical Philosophy 141, quoted in Alberto Toscano, ‘The Sensuous Religion of the Multitude: Art and Abstraction in Negri’, Third Text 99, vol 3, no 4, p 369